A lot of people are learning Elixir these days. Just at my employer, more than 150 people have taken Dave Thomas’ excellent video course. Learning Elixir is simple, but you’ll also be embracing a new ecosystem, the Erlang/OTP ecosystem; treating it as a black-box is just going to make life harder, so let’s open it.
There’s a lot to be said to learning Elixir, even if you don’t need it for work:
- Given how hard it is to make anything mutable, it’s a great way to force yourself into good functional programming habits;
- There’s something in how the OTP actor system makes distribution and concurrency easy to reason about;
- Phoenix, and especially LiveView is a great way to build websites that scale;
- Nerves is mindblowing if “large embeded”, like Raspberry Pi, is your thing. Trust me—try it and then over-the-air update some firmware.
The ecosystem is not yet as rich as, say, Python’s or Ruby’s, but mostly what you want is there. On top of that, the language is much cleaner, development is probably faster, and the end result will actually run at speed and scale well. Furthermore, as I said, it is simple to learn; there are some harder areas like macros (I think that Saša Jurić’ introduction is an excellent one), but overall it is mostly “nothing to see, no magic, no sleigh of hand”.
However, the way Elixir achieves all that goodness is by literally standing on the shoulders of a giant: the Erlang/OTP ecosystem. Elixir is an extremely well-designed language, but José Valim had a relatively easy job of creating a run-time library given that most of it is a thin wrapper around the already excellent code that Erlang and OTP provide. Needless to say, there is a point where you have to look down, notice the giant, and interact with it.
Therefore, given my proclivity for advocating “machine affinity”, here’s a list of stuff you should do to learn more about the system you’re working on. Elixir does, in most places, an excellent job of hiding Erlang and OTP from you, but there are times where it makes sense to remove the veneer and look at the raw material underneath. The list here is roughly in order of importance/complexity and all but complete.
Learn some Erlang
Erlang is a language from a different time. Whereas languages these days let themselves be inspired
by Python or Ruby, Erlang comes from a time where things like Prolog where what you looked at. As such,
it’s a bit “funny”: variable names start with an uppercase, statements are separated by commas,
atoms are just lowercase words and thus don’t stand out like
:atom does, and so on. Learn you
some Erlang and other introductions abound; work
through one until you are at least comfortable reading and maybe patching Erlang code. A lot of libraries
rely on Erlang libraries and there will be a time you will have to dive in.
Learn some OTP
A lot of the power of Elixir directly derives from the power of the famous Open Telecom Platform, whether you write telco software or not. The Elixir docs mostly tell you how to use OTP elements like GenServers and Supervisors and Applications, but are thin on details. For good reason: why replicate documentation that already exists? The OTP Design Principles User’s Guide goes into details and I consider it mandatory reading for everybody who is serious about Elixir.
Learn about releases
Since Elixir 1.9,
mix release is a freebie. Before that, Distillery
did a great job. However, here is one of the spots where Elixir and Mix muddy the waters a bit too much: by
going out of their way to be user friendly, a lot of the underlying details are hidden and that often
results in confusion and black-box prodding (try something and see whether it works in production, say).
Here’s a small exercise. Open up a command line, and check that elixir and mix are version 1.9. If not, make it so (I use asdf-vm for that). Then:
cd /tmp mix new releases cd releases mix release cd _build/dev/rel find . -print
Questions you now want to answer:
- What files are here? What are their roles? What are, specifically, the ‘.script’ and ‘.boot’ files?
- What happens if you bump the mix.exs version number and run
- What happens if you add a dependency and run
- What happens if you add
You just read the OTP guide, including the chapter on Releases, so what is in there does make some sense. Note especially how files you would manually create and maintain when coding in Erlang are mostly generated for you with Elixir.
For bonus points, create or copy a simple Erlang project and build a release. Compare with an Elixir release.
Learn about the Erlang standard libraries
People joke that Erlang is not a language, but an operating system. To some extent, that is true because the system comes with an enormously broad list of libraries. All these are pretty much free to use (they’re already installed) and rock solid (they run a good chunk of the world’s telecom operations), so should be a first option to use. Some pointers:
- The ERTS documentation contains the basic library
documentation, including distribution (the chapters on building custom distribution and discovery
protocols are very interesting) and the
:erlangmodule which has a pretty random collection of sometimes very handy utilities.
- Browse through the reference documentation of the bundled applications; there is a lot there, and what you want to skim through is most likely going to be influenced by your interests. I’m sure there is someone out there who is going to jump with enthusiasm when discovering that there is a bundled ASN.1 to Erlang compiler in there.
Learn about ETS and Tracing
ETS is the main way to share state in the Erlang/Elixir ecosystem, and it is well-documented. Tracing is something completely different, a way to inspect a running VM. It is documented here, here, and probably some pages that lead from there.
Now why would I bunch these two together?
The commonality is called “match specifications” and it is an important topic to pick up when you go deeper; it enables programmatic tracing and advanced ETS operations and it is in fact a small, primitive mini language you write using ASTs. Erlang has a compiler available to compile functions to match specifications, and a neat exercise would be to create one for Elixir too.
Dive into the OTP source code
I’m out of ideas here but if you completed the above, you’re well underway on the path towards expertise; what’s
more, you can probably find where things are now. There’s always a point, though, where you want or need to
know exactly what is happening. To that end, I always have a checked out copy of the OTP source code lying around, built and ready to go if I want to add some debugging
printf() statements or just want to lookup what is happening (I also have the Elixir source code always checked out, but it is simple enough to jump from documentation to source code on Hexdocs so there’s a bit less need for that).
Want to know what happens if you write
Kernel.send/2? Grab the OTP code, and dive right in. There are
two main directories:
erts/has the “emulator” (the BEAM VM and associated stuff) and the base libraries (so you’ll find the
sendcall there, most likely as a built-in function (BIF));
lib/has the bundled Erlang libraries, mostly a mixture of Erlang code and native interface functions (NIFs)
I’ve found the code well-readable and reasonably commented, so to me it has been a fallback that, while not needed often, has proven an invaluable resource during that one or two times I really needed to know what was going on.
I’m happy that some people came back with excellent suggestions of more material to read:
- Erlang in Anger. Yes, I slapped my head when someone mentioned that one. I really, really should have included it. It’s a great resource about debugging.
- Efficiency User’s Guide. The name is a bit odd, but most of the material in here is a good read. Start maybe with the chapter on performance myths.
The guide also has a chapter on binaries and that one is really important to read. You will end up in a situation where having some knowledge about binaries and their allocation and garbage collection strategies are going to matter, and a very timely example was just published by my colleague Tyler Pachal on Medium. It’s a great read on why all of the above actually really matters.